Hindu religion or Hindu Dharma is held by almost 90% of the population.
Its teaching is to reach peace and harmony of life guided by the
Wedas as Holy Scriptures. Hindu Dharma is a special blend of Hinduism,
Buddhism and ancestor worship that has been flourishing over centuries.
They believe in ancestor worship that has been flourishing over
centuries. They believe in One supreme God called: Ida Sanghyang
Widhi Wasa, with His three manifestations known as: Trisakti, that
is: Brahma, the Creator, Wisnu the server, and Shiwa the transformer.
Religion is inseparable from the everyday life, from the simply
daily ritual to the lavishly semi Annually temple festivals. No
opportunity is lost to worship God in an unending series of ceremonies
that stretches from birth up to after death of the people. There
are three things guiding the spiritual life of the Hindu Balinese
people which are:
- Tatwa (philosophy)
- Susila (Etiquette/moral codes)
- Upacara (rituals)
Tatwa tells about the Panca Crada, the five principle life of the
Hindu Balinese people which are :
- Brahman : The godhead
- Atman : The Soul
- Samsara : Reincarnation
- Karma : The law of cause and affect
- Moksha : Unity with God/Nirwana
Susila, moral codes, put emphasis on three-thing eq:
- Positive thinking
- Positive talking
- Positive action
Known locally as "Trikaya Parisuda" Related to those
moral codes also can be mentioned "Tat Wam Asi", frelly
translated into "I am You" or "You are Me" which
controls and prevents somebody from committing (intentional) wrong
Upacara, are those religious ceremonies classified into five classification
- Dewa Yadnya : Ceremonies related to the worship of god
- Rsi Yadnya : Related to the prophet, priest or priest hood
- Pitra Yadnya : Related to the dead
- Manusa yadnya : Ceremonies for human beings
- Buta Yadnya : Sacrifices to placate the negative (Butas)
As the out come of the tattwa among others you can see a lot of
temples dedicated to Brahman, God the almighty, and temples dedicated
to the ancestors, the souls of the dead relatives, the belief in
Samsara creates the opinion that having children is important to
give possibility for the soul of reincarnate. Family planning is
successful in Bali because there is also a set of rules spiritually
controlling the birth of too many children well which parents cannot
do if they have too many.
Karma law prevents people from doing bad deeds because such things
will result in negative effect to the doer. While belief in Mokhsa
suggest positive attitude that eventually everybody every soul,
after series of reincarnations will be able to join the origin,
Susila prescribes good behaviors and attitudes which are vital
in social life, unless one is able to control himself and manage
to place himself in the right position he will certainly suffer
in his life specially in Balinese society where "mental torture"
is one of the most feared, a kind of social punishment like being
declared socially dead an ignored. Upacara manifests itself in innumerable
ceremonies, such as semi annual or annual temple festivals, ordination
ceremonies, cremation tooth filling and wedding ceremonies and sacrifices.
An example of such sacrifice is done yearly the day before "Nyepi",
Another philosophy of the Balinese is the "Tri Hita karana"
or the three prosperity/happiness supporting elements in the form
of harmonious relationship between:
- Man and God
- Man and Man
- Man and Environment
Man-God relationship can clearly be seen in the religious attitude
of the Balinese Hindu people. The religion is not only absorbed
through the philosophy but also by actions in the way they make
all sort offerings. It is also obvious in their devotion.
Man-Man relationship is regulated by the Awig awig or adat, traditional
laws, both in written or unwritten forms.
Man-Environment relation, in common practices, can be seen among
others in the traditional calendar. There are "good days"
and "bad days". The "tumpek days" are the days
of worship and respect.
For instance: "Tumpek Uduh" is the day when the Balinese
people make offerings for trees.
"Tumpek kandang" for animals, and "Tumpek landep"
to respect pointed things like Lance, daggers, krises, also for
mental articles as gamelan orchestra instruments and recently this
metal thing also cover motor bikes, cars etc. So, if you see cars
are ceremonially decorated on a Saturday that is sure to be a "Tumpek
Tumpek wayang is for performing arts perhaps it can be said that
Tumpek suggests the Man depend on his other contests in the sense
of his sources of food, tolls and fineness so he must respect and
treads flossed well.
The environmental taboos days or rather weeks are known, as the
"Ingkels" which come in turn's every year there are:
- Ingkel wong taboo for disrespect to human
- Ingkel soto to animals
- Ingkel mina to fisher
- Ingkel manuk to birds
- Ingkel taru to trees
- Ingkel buku to canes: bamboo, sugar canes
In short, the Tattwa, Susila, Upacara, Tat Wam Asi, Tri Hita Karana
are some of the philosophies directing the Balinese in their day
to day life. The teachings are given through traditional ways. It
is very likely that Balinese do not know the philosophies by 'names'
but they observe them all the same.
Those philosophies when properly observed will create an individual
who is religious, friendly and has respect towards his fellowmen
and his environment. His objective of life is to achieve a balance
between material and spiritual life. The ultimate goal is religious
purity: Moksha. The Balinese are after this goal.
When meeting Balinese, the formal greeting is done by clasping
the palms of your hand, place them in front of your chest, the finger
tips under the chain, and say: Om swasti Astu (Praying for safety
and health). When you leave say: Om Cantih, Cantih, Cantih (Peace,